The Warriors started the final quarter 13 points down, but Curry's fine streak saw them outscore Cleveland 36-8 in 12 minutes to secure victory on the road.
Curry's side have the best record in the NBA, with 13 wins and two losses.
"He's one of the greatest players in the history of the game," said Warriors coach Steve Kerr.
"He's always capable of catching fire like that. As amazing as it was, it didn't shock me because this is what he does."
Curry made nine of 16 three-pointers attempted and overtook former team-mate Kevin Durant to lead the league in points per game this season, now averaging 29.5 points across 15 games.
He was also playing with a left hip contusion sustained in Tuesday's win over the Brooklyn Nets and revealed he will now have an "assessment" to see if he can play against the Detroit Pistons on Friday.
Elsewhere, Jimmy Butler scored 32 points to lead the Miami Heat to an impressive 112-97 win over the Washington Wizards.
The Heat have now won four straight games and are top of the Eastern Conference with a 11-5 record.
The Philadelphia 76ers beat the Denver Nuggets 103-89 to end a five-game losing streak.
The Memphis Grizzlies defeated the Los Angeles Clippers 120-108, the Minnesota Timberwolves secured a 115-90 win over the San Antonio Spurs, while the Utah Jazz beat the Toronto Raptors 119-103.